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课前预习的好处

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发表于 2018-5-15 10:32:56 |显示全部楼层
 课前预习能够提高记笔记的能力。通过预习,对新课内容心中有数,课堂笔记就可以抓住讲授中的重点、难点、疑点,有选择地加以记录。不预习,听课时不知道哪些是书上有的,哪些是老师补充的,哪些是重点,哪些是关键,忙着听、忙着记,“眉毛胡子一把抓”,这种“录音机”式的笔记,除了能锻炼速记能力外,丝毫无助于思维能力的提高。
  1.课前预习能够培养自学能力。有人说,预习是自学的演习,的确是这样。我们正处在科学技术迅猛发展、知识不断更新的时代。学生在校学习的时间是短暂的,总有一天要走向社会,那就要靠自学来获取知识。如果在中学时代,能够通过预习,培养自己的阅读能力、理解能力、分析能力和综合能力,就能为将来到高一级学校深造或走向社会的学习带来很大好处。
  2.课前预习的方法
  第一种阅读法。
  预习首先要“读进去”。要细读、深思;对读不懂的地方和思不透之处,要提出疑点,找出问题,带着这些疑问上课,力争听懂,以便取得较好的效果。预习开始的时候,首先从头到尾把课文朗读一遍或默读一遍,边读边思考:新课文的基本内容是什么?是按什么思路来阐述的?这个思路的道理是什么?读过之后懂不懂?还有哪些不理解的地方,用笔记录在预习笔记本上。
  这种预习方法,表层目的是对新课文知识的预习,深层目的是以此理出一条检验自己学识的水平线。看在独立学习情况下,自己能掌握住多少内容。上课的时候,除了听老师讲课以外,还要比较一下,自己的理解和老师的讲解有哪些差距,这种差距是属于知识方面的,还是方法上的,找到原因也就找到了补短的目标。
  经过阅读预习以后仍不能理解的那部分内容,不必强求理解,把它记下来作为听课的重点。
  阅读法步骤:
  第一步:纵览章节
  为什么要纵览、概括阅读呢?这里有两个很实际的理由:
  (1)纵览会帮助你掌握背景知识。如果对一个指定章节的内容,你事先一无所知,那么阅读和理解这个章节会既慢又困难。可一旦你在这样的章节里读到一个熟悉的观点——即你认出是以前曾学到过的东西,就可读得快些,理解得深一些。差别就在于先前的背景知识,而纵览则能使你很迅速地掌握背景知识。
  (2)通读章节可以提供事前的组织者。对章节一般内容的熟悉,能够形成学习上的事前组织者。熟悉的标志可以充作标题或类目,将思想、事实以及细节都集中在里面。所谓的“磁力中心”,把事实、思想和细节像磁铁吸铁屑一样吸在它的周围。
  第二步:圈点勾画
  预习时,应该边读边划,边读边批,边读边写。“划”就是划层次、划重点。读了一段如果看不出层次,抓不住要点,那就没有读进去,要再读几遍。“批”就是把自己的体会、看法写在旁边。这些体会、看法究竟对不对,
  可以在听课中验证。“写”就是把自己不懂的问题简单地整理出来。“划”、“批”、“写”这是阅读的“犁铧”。思考的种子,只有在耕耘过的土地上才能更好萌发。
  第三步:提问
  在读完书后,能够回答问题的人,一般在阅读前和阅读时就能够提出各种问题。这是获得高度理解的令人惊奇和有价值的技能。
  提问行之有效的一个主要原因:提问能迫使你集中注意力以及敏锐、直接和有选择地注意你所阅读的字句。如果脑子里没有任何问题,那么你的眼睛只是略过段落中所有的字句却不会认识到就是这些字句包含了各种答案。没有提问题,也就不会有答案。在阅读和钻研课本内容的时候,如何预先提出问题呢?有一个众所周知的办法是将每一个标题都变成问题。
  第四步:预习后想一想
  预习后,自己关上课本想一想:下节课老师要讲什么?自己懂不懂?与这个新问题有联系的旧知识是什么?自己是否已经掌握?还有什么不懂的问题需要上课时听老师讲?这样检查,可以看出自己预习的效果怎样,以便进行调整、改进。
  第二种回顾法。
  回顾法主要是在预习新课文的时候,要复习巩固学过的知识,以发现自己掌握知识的薄弱环节。本来,已经学过的知识是应该记住的,可是事实上,由于种种原因,学过的知识或者忘记了,或者记不全了,或者记错了而不自知,从而变成了对新课文理解的“绊脚石”。有的同学感到听课效果差,其中有一个很重要的原因,就是没有扫除这些“绊脚石”,缺少听好新课所必备的知识,对课堂上老师讲的新课很难立即理解,课堂上某一处卡壳,后面就更听不懂了。
  通过回忆,查一查不懂的概念在哪一章哪一节中讲过,如果还回忆不起来,就找出课本或笔记本认真看看,直到弄懂为止。
  这是为什么呢?因为,这和新课内容不同,新内容不懂可以搁着,到课堂上听老师讲;而已学过的知识,老师在课堂上是不会讲的,如果预习时没搞懂,就会影响听课了。

Pre class preview can improve the ability to take notes. Through preview, we have a good idea of the contents of the new lesson. Classroom notes can catch the key points, difficulties and doubtful points in teaching, and record them selectively. Without preview, we don't know what the books have, which are the teachers, which are the teachers, what are the key, which are the key, the busy listening, the busy notes, the "eyebrow beard grabs", this kind of "recording machine" style notes, in addition to the ability to exercise shorthand, the slightest help to improve the ability of thinking.
Preview of 1. classes can cultivate self-study ability. Some people say that preview is a self study exercise, indeed. We are in the era of rapid development of science and technology and constantly updated knowledge. The time for students to study in school is short. One day they will go to society. If we are in high school, we can cultivate their reading ability, understanding, analytical ability and comprehensive ability through preview, which will bring great benefits to further study in higher school or to social learning in the future.
The method of preview before the 2. class
The first method of reading.
The preview first should be "read in". It is necessary to read and ponder carefully; to find out the places that do not understand and to be thought-provoking, to put forward doubts, to find out the problems, to take these questions in class and to strive to understand them so as to achieve better results. When the preview begins, first read and read the text from beginning to end, reading and reading the text, reading and Thinking: what is the basic content of the new text? What is the idea of the text? What is the truth of this idea? After reading, understand it? And what do not understand, with notes on notebook preview.
The purpose of this preview method is to preview the knowledge of the new text, and the deep purpose is to make a horizontal line to examine one's own knowledge. Look at how much information you can master in independent learning. In class, in addition to listening to the teacher lectures, it is also necessary to compare the differences between their understanding and the teacher's explanation. This gap is a knowledge aspect or a method.
After reading preview, it is not necessary to understand and record it as the focus of lectures.
Reading method steps:
The first step: the section of the survey
Why do we have to read and summarize reading? There are two practical reasons:
(1) the survey will help you to master the background. If you know nothing about the contents of a specified chapter, it will be slow and difficult to read and understand this chapter. But once you read a familiar view in such a chapter - that you recognize what you've learned before, you can read faster and understand it.  The difference is in the previous background knowledge, and the survey will enable you to grasp the background knowledge very quickly.
(2) the general reading section can provide the pre organizer. Familiarity with the general contents of the chapters can form a pre organizer in learning.  Familiar signs can be used as headings or categories, concentrating on ideas, facts and details. The so-called "magnetic center" attracts facts, ideas and details like magnets and iron filings around it.
The second step: delineation of the circle
When preparing, you should read and draw while reading, while reading and writing. "Delimit" is a level and key point. After reading a paragraph, if you can't see the level and grasp the main points, you will not read it and read it several times. "Batch" is to write your own experience and opinions on the side.  Whether these experiences and opinions are right,
It can be verified in the class. Writing means simply sorting out problems that you do not understand. "Zoned", "batch" and "write" are the ploughshares of reading. The seeds of thinking can only germinate better on cultivated land.
The third step: question
After reading a book, people who can answer questions usually ask questions before reading and reading. This is an amazing and valuable skill to acquire a high degree of understanding.
One of the main reasons why questions can be effective is that questions can force you to concentrate and to be careful, direct and selective in paying attention to what you read. If there is no problem in your mind, your eyes just skip all the words in the paragraph, but do not realize that these words contain various answers. Without asking questions, there will be no answers. In reading and studying the contents of textbooks, how to ask questions beforehand? A well-known way is to turn every title into a problem.
The fourth step: think about it after the preview
After the preview, I want to shut up the textbook and think about what the next class teacher should say? Do you understand? What is the old knowledge that is associated with this new problem? Do you know if you have it? And what do you need to hear from the teacher in class? It can be seen from the effect of your preview so that it can be adjusted and improved. .
Second kinds of retrospective methods.
The review method is mainly to review and consolidate the knowledge learned when preparing for the new text, so as to find out the weak links of knowledge. Originally, the knowledge that has been learned should be remembered, but in fact, for a variety of reasons, the knowledge that has been learned is forgotten, or is not remembered, or is mistaken and unaware, thus becoming a "stumbling block" to the understanding of the new text. Some students feel the effect of listening is poor. One of the most important reasons is that they have not swept this.


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